**:**

__The Logic Stage, your student now__"Somewhere around fourth or fifth grade, children begin to think more analytically, Middle-school students are less interested in finding out facts than in asking, 'Why?' The second phase of the classical education, the 'logic stage,' is a time when the child begins to pay attention to cause and effect, to the relationships among different fields of knowledge, to the way facts fit together into a logical framework. A student is ready for the logic stage when the capacity for abstract thought begins to mature. During these years, the student begins the study of algebra and applies mathematical reasoning to real-life situations. She studies the rules of logic, and begins to apply logic to all academic subjects. The logic of writing, for example, includes paragraph construction and support of a thesis; the logic of reading involves the criticism and analysis of texts, not simple absorption of information; the logic of history demands that the student find out why the War of 1812 was fought, rather than simply reading its story; the logic of science requires the child to learn and apply the scientific method."1

___________________________________________________________

1 Susan Wise Bauer and Jessie Wise,

*The Well-Trained Mind: A Guide to Classical*

*Look for your student to have projects at home this year including book reports, history projects, and continuations of science projects.***Social Studies: Early Modern Times (1600 to 1850)**

**Social Studies: Early Modern Times (1600 to 1850)**

Who was the Sun King? How did samurai become sumo wrestlers? What was the Black Hole of Calcutta? And why was a California town named Ground Hog Glory? This year will get you all the information you need as you venture into the Early Modern Times using auditory, visual and kinetic learning approaches.

A World of Empires, Protestant Rebellions, James, King of Two Countries, Searching for a NW Passage, Warlords of Japan, New, Colonies in a New World, The Spread of Slavery, The Middle of the East, The Western War, Far East of Europe, The Mogul Emperors of India, Battle, Fire, and Plague in England, The Sun King, The Rise of Prussia, A New World in Conflict, The West, Russia Looks West, East and West, Collide, The English in India, The Imperial East, Fighting over North America, Revolution!, The New Country , Sailing South, Revolution Gone Sour, Catherine the Great, A Changing World, China and the Rest of the World, The Rise of Bonaparte, Freedom in the Caribbean, A Different Kind of Rebellion, The Opened West, The End of Napoleon, Freedom For South America, Mexican Independence, The Slave Trade Ends, Troubled Africa, American Tragedies, China Adrift, Mexico and Her Neighbor.

__Some Topics Covered:__A World of Empires, Protestant Rebellions, James, King of Two Countries, Searching for a NW Passage, Warlords of Japan, New, Colonies in a New World, The Spread of Slavery, The Middle of the East, The Western War, Far East of Europe, The Mogul Emperors of India, Battle, Fire, and Plague in England, The Sun King, The Rise of Prussia, A New World in Conflict, The West, Russia Looks West, East and West, Collide, The English in India, The Imperial East, Fighting over North America, Revolution!, The New Country , Sailing South, Revolution Gone Sour, Catherine the Great, A Changing World, China and the Rest of the World, The Rise of Bonaparte, Freedom in the Caribbean, A Different Kind of Rebellion, The Opened West, The End of Napoleon, Freedom For South America, Mexican Independence, The Slave Trade Ends, Troubled Africa, American Tragedies, China Adrift, Mexico and Her Neighbor.

## Human Anatomy and Physiology!

This year your students will discover the amazing world of human anatomy! Topics covered will include: Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology The Skeletal System The Muscular System The Digestive and Renal Systems Health and Nutrition |
The Respiratory System
Our Blood The Cardiovascular System The Nervous and Endocrine Systems The Nervous System Extended Your Senses The Integumentary System The Lymphatic and Immune Systems Growth and Development |

## Math in 5th and 6th Grade:

The Lab school of Oklahoma uses Saxon math for it's core math instruction. We believe each student is unique and teach to the individual. Therefore, we use the daily five method to ensure each child receives time for individual instruction at his or her level. For more information on Saxon math, please visit our "About Us" page.

Below is a list of

__new topics__**covered this year in math. For a great resource and explanation on why we use Saxon Math, please refer to our "About Us" page.**
5th Grade:Adding and subtracting integers/signed numbers Multiplying and dividing integers/signed numbers Transforming equations (using the addition rule and the multiplication rule) Linear functions Analyzing functional relationships Rates Graphing lines Selecting the best measure of central tendency for a given situation Tree diagrams Combinations Odds Angle bisectors Congruent angles Pyramids Cylinders Complex Figures Parallelograms Trapezoids Circles Platonic solids Surface area Concentric circles Arcs Area Pi Interior and exterior angles Sum of angle measures Complementary and supplementary Angles formed by transversals Calculate to find unknown angle measures Using similar triangles Angle bisectors Unit multipliers Irrational numbers Prime Factorization Percents greater than 100% Power of decimals and fractions Dividing with signed numbers Multiplying signed numbers Adding and Subtracting signed numbers |
Negative exponents6th Grade: Scientific notation Index Using a calculator to find roots Complex fractions Percent of change Rational numbers Real numbers Base 2 Conversion between temperature scales Determining the precision of a measuring tool Slope Diagonals Pythagorean theorem Kites Semicircles and sectors Cones Spheres Estimating volume Intercepts of a line Graphing transformations on the coordinate plane Palindromes Sierpinski’s triangle Absolute value Constants Coefficients Polynomials Simplifying Factoring Combining like terms Nonlinear equations Solving simple quadratic equations Literal equations Graphing on a number line Graphing on a coordinate plane Nonlinear functions Quadrants, Graphing parabolas Graphing hyperbolas, Graphing inequalities Slope-intercept form Identifying misleading graphs Quartiles, Box-and-whisker plots Independent events, Dependent events Slope of a line, Point symmetry Congruent segments, Congruent angles Inscribed polygons , Congruent triangles |

**A word about Saxon's Scope and Sequence:**

Saxon 8/7 and Alg 1/2 are both considered Pre-Algebra. Algebra 1/2 was written by John Saxon for students who hadn’t previously taken pre-algebra or who had scored poorly. It moves at a faster pace than 8/7, but the material is the same. Saxon 8/7 was written by Stephen Hake. Since our school follows Joh Saxon's teaching, we teach Algebra 1/2 and not Saxon 8/7.

***Saxon also offers Geometry. This is new and not part of the original sequence written by John Saxon. the is because geometry is covered adequately by Jon Saxon in the Algebra 1 and 2 books that we use. We teach all students as if they are college bound in the area of math or science. Therefore, we teach Algebra 1, Algebra 2, Advanced Math, and Calculus and your geometry is then covered by the content found in these texts.

## Language and Grammar

In 5th and 6th grade your student will begin a more language driven program instead of phonics driven program to help in the transition from learning the mechanics of reading to learning the mechanics of language and writing. Your student can confidently navigate through writing and grammar using a systematic approach that will build upon itself. Utilizing the Saxon Grammar and Writing as our curriculum for upper elementary and jr. high, we believe your student will not only retain a thorough knowledge of the English language, but will also develop excellent writing skills.

**Topics that are covered this year include:**
The Paragraph
Developing an Outline Brainstorming The Parts of a Complete Essay Self-Evaluation of Essays The Persuasive (Argument or Opinion) Essay The Expository (Informative) Essay The Personal Narrative The Descriptive Essay The Research Paper The Imaginative Story Writing in Response to Literature Writing in Response to Informational Text The Chapter Summary The Short Story Summary Writing a Traditional Poem Writing a Free-Verse Poem Diagraming Usage Spelling Rules |
The Period
The Comma, Quotation Marks Italics or Underline, Titles The Exclamation Mark, The Question Mark The Dash, The Hyphen The Semicolon. The Colon The Apostrophe, Ellipses Parentheses, Brackets Proper Nouns, First Word of a Sentence The Pronoun I, First Word in a Line of Poetry Titles, Outlines Direct Quotations, People Titles Family Words, School Subjects Areas of the Country, Religions, Bible, Deity Greeting and Closing of a Letter No Capital Letter The Eight Parts of Speech Sentence Structure including gerunds, infinitives, particles, and parallel structure Vocabulary Development |

## Literature That Will be Studied This Year Includes:

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__Indian in the Cupboard__by Lynne Reid Banks2.)

__Number the Stars__by Lois Lowry3.)

__A Long Walk to Water__by Linda Sue Park4.)

__Where the Red Fern Grows__by Wilson Rawls5.)

__Heroes of Black History__(from the Who Was…? series - Harriet Tubman, MLK, Rosa Parks, and Jackie Robinson)6.)

__Charlie and the Chocolate Factory__by Roald Dahl7.)

__The City of Ember__by Jeanne DuPrau8.)

__Fuzzy Mud__by Louis Sachar9.)

__The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe__by CS Lewis10.)

__Where the Sidewalk Ends__by Shel Silverstein